[Pili torti et canaliculi in ectodermal dysplasia].Hautarzt. 1994 Jun; 45(6):372-7.H
Uncombable hair is a heterogeneous symptom with a partially genetic background. In order to make an exact diagnosis, it is mandatory to recognize associated abnormalities, do pedigree analyses, and perform scanning electron microscopic studies of the hair. In a case of ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome and in a patient with familial tricho-odonto-onychial ectodermal dysplasia with syndactyly, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated pili torti et canaliculi, helicotrichia and cuticular dystrophy. Congenital pili torti et canaliculi must be differentiated from pili torti and from pili trianguli et canaliculi ("cheveux incoiffables"), inasmuch as they may present in hypotrichosis congenita hereditaria of Marie-Unna or as part of complex ectodermal dysplasia syndromes with clefting of the lip/palate and/or limb defects. It is noteworthy that some of those patients show a dysmorphic facies and an atopic constitution in addition to the aforementioned abnormalities. We discuss the possible relationship of these syndromes to each other, with special respect to the Hay-Wells or ankyloblepharon, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin (ectodermal dysplasia, midfacial hypoplasia, cleft lip/palate) syndromes.