Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency: early diagnosis by routine urine pteridine screening.Pediatrics. 1987 Mar; 79(3):374-8.Ped
A deficiency of hepatic guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I is reported in a 4-month-old infant in whom positive results on a Guthrie phenylketonuria test in the neonatal period were found. Because of the significantly elevated serum phenylalanine levels a diagnosis of classical phenylketonuria was made, and dietary therapy was started. Urinary pteridine screening for cofactor variants, however, revealed extremely low levels of both neopterin and biopterin. This suggested the possibility of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency and led to additional confirmatory assays. Repeat urine, serum, and CSF pteridine profiles, combined with tetrahydrobiopterin-loading studies and the assay of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I activity in a liver biopsy, confirmed the defect. It is significant to note that the diagnosis was made before the onset of major clinical symptoms. This case illustrates the need for routine cofactor variant screening of all infants in whom hyperphenylalaninemia is diagnosed in the neonatal period.