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Toxalbumin exposures: 12 years' experience of U.S. poison centers.
Toxicon. 2015 Jun 01; 99:125-9.T

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Toxalbumins are natural plant toxins purported to be highly toxic. The purpose was to evaluate toxalbumin exposures reported to U.S. poison centers to determine plants involved and their toxicities.

METHODS

A retrospective review of National Poison Data System data on acute toxalbumin exposures with known outcomes from 2000 through 2011 was performed.

RESULTS

There were 1164 exposures. The majority involved one route (1135; 97.5%), mostly ingestions (904; 79.7%) or dermal (166; 14.3%). Most patients developed no effects (694; 59.6%) or minor effects (374; 32.1%). Moderate or major effects occurred in 8.3% with 66.6% ingestions and 23.9% dermal. There were no deaths. Exposures to the plants Ricinus communis and Robinia pseudoacacia were most common (33.8% and 32.9%, respectively), with gastrointestinal effects from R. communis (vomiting 19.6%, diarrhea 8.9%, nausea 7.9%) and dermal effects from R. pseudoacacia (puncture 28.7%, dermal irritation/pain 27.9%, and edema 13.3%).

CONCLUSIONS

While toxalbumin plant exposures were generally well-tolerated, continued evaluation of risk is warranted since plants were primarily identified by the public. Major effects occurred in under 1% of cases overall, and not at all following unintentional ingestions. These findings should help allay concerns that unintentional ingestions of toxalbumin plants by young children will cause serious toxicity and possibly death.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Maryland Poison Center, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, USA.Maryland Poison Center, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, USA. Electronic address: wkleinsc@rx.umaryland.edu.Maryland Poison Center, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

25817002

Citation

Kaland, Mingzohn Ellen, et al. "Toxalbumin Exposures: 12 Years' Experience of U.S. Poison Centers." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 99, 2015, pp. 125-9.
Kaland ME, Klein-Schwartz W, Anderson BD. Toxalbumin exposures: 12 years' experience of U.S. poison centers. Toxicon. 2015;99:125-9.
Kaland, M. E., Klein-Schwartz, W., & Anderson, B. D. (2015). Toxalbumin exposures: 12 years' experience of U.S. poison centers. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 99, 125-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.03.014
Kaland ME, Klein-Schwartz W, Anderson BD. Toxalbumin Exposures: 12 Years' Experience of U.S. Poison Centers. Toxicon. 2015 Jun 1;99:125-9. PubMed PMID: 25817002.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxalbumin exposures: 12 years' experience of U.S. poison centers. AU - Kaland,Mingzohn Ellen, AU - Klein-Schwartz,Wendy, AU - Anderson,Bruce D, Y1 - 2015/03/26/ PY - 2015/01/20/received PY - 2015/03/19/revised PY - 2015/03/25/accepted PY - 2015/3/31/entrez PY - 2015/3/31/pubmed PY - 2016/4/8/medline KW - Black locust KW - Castor bean KW - Poisoning KW - Ricin SP - 125 EP - 9 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 99 N2 - BACKGROUND: Toxalbumins are natural plant toxins purported to be highly toxic. The purpose was to evaluate toxalbumin exposures reported to U.S. poison centers to determine plants involved and their toxicities. METHODS: A retrospective review of National Poison Data System data on acute toxalbumin exposures with known outcomes from 2000 through 2011 was performed. RESULTS: There were 1164 exposures. The majority involved one route (1135; 97.5%), mostly ingestions (904; 79.7%) or dermal (166; 14.3%). Most patients developed no effects (694; 59.6%) or minor effects (374; 32.1%). Moderate or major effects occurred in 8.3% with 66.6% ingestions and 23.9% dermal. There were no deaths. Exposures to the plants Ricinus communis and Robinia pseudoacacia were most common (33.8% and 32.9%, respectively), with gastrointestinal effects from R. communis (vomiting 19.6%, diarrhea 8.9%, nausea 7.9%) and dermal effects from R. pseudoacacia (puncture 28.7%, dermal irritation/pain 27.9%, and edema 13.3%). CONCLUSIONS: While toxalbumin plant exposures were generally well-tolerated, continued evaluation of risk is warranted since plants were primarily identified by the public. Major effects occurred in under 1% of cases overall, and not at all following unintentional ingestions. These findings should help allay concerns that unintentional ingestions of toxalbumin plants by young children will cause serious toxicity and possibly death. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://wwww.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25817002/Toxalbumin_exposures:_12_years'_experience_of_U_S__poison_centers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(15)00082-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -