Hydrocarbon toxicity: an analysis of AAPCC TESS data.Przegl Lek. 2007; 64(4-5):194-6.PL
Human hydrocarbon exposures have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. To determine which hydrocarbons were associated with the most severe adverse outcomes, human exposure data reported to American poison information centers were analyzed.
Outcome data for single-substance, hydrocarbon exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System from 1994 through 2003 were analyzed. Only cases with definitive medical outcomes were included. Analyses were stratified by five age groups: <6 years, 6-12 years, 13-19 years, 20-59 years, >59 years. Hazard factors were determined by calculating the sum of the major effects and fatalities for each hydrocarbon category and dividing this by the total number of exposures for that category. To normalize the data, the overall rate of major effects and deaths for each age group was assigned hazard factor value of 1. Hydrocarbon categories with a HF of > or = 1.5 were included in the final analyses. Estimated rates of major effect and fatal outcomes (outcomes/1000 people) were also calculated.
318,939 exposures were analyzed. Exposures to benzene, toluene/xylene, halogenated hydrocarbons, kerosene and lamp oil resulted in the highest hazard factor values.
These data demonstrate that hydrocarbons that are absorbed systemically and those with low viscosities are associated with higher hazard factors. The risks associated with hydrocarbons often implicated in abuse by older children and adolescents are also confirmed.