Altered folding, turnover, and polarized sorting act in concert to define a novel pathomechanism of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.J Biol Chem 2006; 281(20):14393-9JB
Naturally occurring mutants of membrane and secretory proteins are often associated with the pathogenesis of human diseases. Here, we describe the molecular basis of a novel phenotype of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), a disaccharide malabsorption disorder of the human intestine in which several structural features and functional capacities of the brush-border enzyme complex sucrase-isomaltase (SI) are affected. The cDNA encoding SI from a patient with CSID reveals a mutation in the isomaltase subunit of SI that results in the substitution of a cysteine by an arginine at amino acid residue 635 (C635R). When this mutation is introduced into the wild type cDNA of SI a mutant enzyme, SI(C635R), is generated that shows a predominant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, a definite localization of SI(C635R) in the Golgi apparatus and at the cell surface could be also observed. Epitope mapping with conformation-specific mAbs protease sensitivity assays, and enzymatic activity measurements demonstrate an altered folding pattern of SI(C635R) that is responsible for a substantially increased turnover rate and an aberrant sorting profile. Thus, SI(C635R) becomes distributed also at the basolateral membrane in contrast to wild type SI. Concomitant with the altered sorting pattern, the partial detergent extractability of wild type SI shifts to a complete detergent solubility with Triton X-100. The mutation has therefore affected an epitope responsible for the apical targeting fidelity of SI. Altogether, the combined effects of the C635R mutation on the turnover rate, function, polarized sorting, and detergent solubility of SI constitute a unique and novel pathomechanism of CSID.