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Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and alcohol use.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Feb 28; 81(3):323-6.DA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) toxicity.

METHODS

Retrospective case-study of 65 GHB and GBL intoxications seen in an urban emergency department.

RESULTS

63% of intoxications occurred in male patients. The median age was 24 years (range 16-41 years). 65% co-ingested alcohol or illicit drugs, mostly MDMA and cocaine. 83% presented with coma. The mean+/-S.D. time to regain consciousness among comatose patients was 111+/-61 min and was significantly longer in patients who co-abused illicit drugs such as cocaine or MDMA (155+/-60 min). Bradycardia occurred in 38%, hypotension in 6% and hypothermia in 48%. Agitation was observed in 17% of all patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol co-use (29%). Vomiting occurred in 31% of all patients and tended to be more frequent in patients who co-used alcohol (39%). Management of GHB and GBL overdose was supportive. Four patients needed admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation (6%).

CONCLUSIONS

Overdosing of GHB and GBL frequently results in non-reactive coma reflecting the severity of poisoning. Multiple drug use is common and significantly influences the clinical presentation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. meliechti@dplanet.chNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16143455

Citation

Liechti, Matthias E., et al. "Clinical Features of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Gamma-butyrolactone Toxicity and Concomitant Drug and Alcohol Use." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 81, no. 3, 2006, pp. 323-6.
Liechti ME, Kunz I, Greminger P, et al. Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and alcohol use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81(3):323-6.
Liechti, M. E., Kunz, I., Greminger, P., Speich, R., & Kupferschmidt, H. (2006). Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and alcohol use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81(3), 323-6.
Liechti ME, et al. Clinical Features of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Gamma-butyrolactone Toxicity and Concomitant Drug and Alcohol Use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Feb 28;81(3):323-6. PubMed PMID: 16143455.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and alcohol use. AU - Liechti,Matthias E, AU - Kunz,Isabelle, AU - Greminger,Peter, AU - Speich,Rudolf, AU - Kupferschmidt,Hugo, Y1 - 2005/09/06/ PY - 2005/02/11/received PY - 2005/07/28/revised PY - 2005/07/28/accepted PY - 2005/9/7/pubmed PY - 2006/7/13/medline PY - 2005/9/7/entrez SP - 323 EP - 6 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 81 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case-study of 65 GHB and GBL intoxications seen in an urban emergency department. RESULTS: 63% of intoxications occurred in male patients. The median age was 24 years (range 16-41 years). 65% co-ingested alcohol or illicit drugs, mostly MDMA and cocaine. 83% presented with coma. The mean+/-S.D. time to regain consciousness among comatose patients was 111+/-61 min and was significantly longer in patients who co-abused illicit drugs such as cocaine or MDMA (155+/-60 min). Bradycardia occurred in 38%, hypotension in 6% and hypothermia in 48%. Agitation was observed in 17% of all patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol co-use (29%). Vomiting occurred in 31% of all patients and tended to be more frequent in patients who co-used alcohol (39%). Management of GHB and GBL overdose was supportive. Four patients needed admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Overdosing of GHB and GBL frequently results in non-reactive coma reflecting the severity of poisoning. Multiple drug use is common and significantly influences the clinical presentation. SN - 0376-8716 UR - https://wwww.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16143455/Clinical_features_of_gamma_hydroxybutyrate_and_gamma_butyrolactone_toxicity_and_concomitant_drug_and_alcohol_use_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -