Evaluation of selected plants for their toxic effects in canaries.J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992 May 01; 200(9):1329-31.JA
Leaves or fruit from 14 plants considered to be toxic to pet birds were administered by gavage to 15 pairs of canaries (Serinus canaria). Each bird was given 0.12 to 0.70 g of plant material. One pair served as a control and was given distilled water. The plant materials were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, pulverized, and resuspended in deionized water for administration. Of the plants tested, 5 (oleander, lupine, foxglove, yew leaves, and dieffenbachia) were considered highly toxic and were associated with acute death of birds. The remaining plant samples caused no, or only transient, clinical illness.