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Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running.
J Physiol. 2004 May 01; 556(Pt 3):983-1000.JP

Abstract

Muscular adaptation to physical exercise has previously been described as a repair process following tissue damage. Recently, evidence has been published to question this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate inflammatory processes in human skeletal muscle and epimysium after acute physical exercise with large eccentric components. Three groups of subjects (n= 19) performed 45 min treadmill running at either 4 deg (n= 5) or 8 deg (n= 9) downhill or 4 deg uphill (n= 5) and one group served as control (n= 9). One biopsy was taken from each subject 48 h post exercise. Blood samples were taken up to 7 days post exercise. Compared to the control group, none of the markers of inflammation in muscle and epimysium samples was different in any exercised group. Only subjects in the Downhill groups experienced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and increased serum creatine kinase activity (CK). The detected levels of immunohistochemical markers for T cells (CD3), granulocytes (CD11b), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1beta (HIF-1beta) were greater in epimysium from exercised subjects with DOMS ratings >3 (0-10 scale) compared to exercised subjects without DOMS but not higher than controls. Eccentric physical exercise (downhill running) did not result in skeletal muscle inflammation 48 h post exercise, despite DOMS and increased CK. It is suggested that exercise can induce DOMS by activating inflammatory factors present in the epimysium before exercise. Repeated physical training may alter the content of inflammatory factors in the epimysium and thus reduce DOMS.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Christer.malm@anatomy.umu.seNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14766942

Citation

Malm, Christer, et al. "Leukocytes, Cytokines, Growth Factors and Hormones in Human Skeletal Muscle and Blood After Uphill or Downhill Running." The Journal of Physiology, vol. 556, no. Pt 3, 2004, pp. 983-1000.
Malm C, Sjödin TL, Sjöberg B, et al. Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running. J Physiol. 2004;556(Pt 3):983-1000.
Malm, C., Sjödin, T. L., Sjöberg, B., Lenkei, R., Renström, P., Lundberg, I. E., & Ekblom, B. (2004). Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running. The Journal of Physiology, 556(Pt 3), 983-1000.
Malm C, et al. Leukocytes, Cytokines, Growth Factors and Hormones in Human Skeletal Muscle and Blood After Uphill or Downhill Running. J Physiol. 2004 May 1;556(Pt 3):983-1000. PubMed PMID: 14766942.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Leukocytes, cytokines, growth factors and hormones in human skeletal muscle and blood after uphill or downhill running. AU - Malm,Christer, AU - Sjödin,The Late Bertil, AU - Sjöberg,Berit, AU - Lenkei,Rodica, AU - Renström,Per, AU - Lundberg,Ingrid E, AU - Ekblom,Björn, Y1 - 2004/02/06/ PY - 2004/2/10/pubmed PY - 2005/3/22/medline PY - 2004/2/10/entrez SP - 983 EP - 1000 JF - The Journal of physiology JO - J Physiol VL - 556 IS - Pt 3 N2 - Muscular adaptation to physical exercise has previously been described as a repair process following tissue damage. Recently, evidence has been published to question this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate inflammatory processes in human skeletal muscle and epimysium after acute physical exercise with large eccentric components. Three groups of subjects (n= 19) performed 45 min treadmill running at either 4 deg (n= 5) or 8 deg (n= 9) downhill or 4 deg uphill (n= 5) and one group served as control (n= 9). One biopsy was taken from each subject 48 h post exercise. Blood samples were taken up to 7 days post exercise. Compared to the control group, none of the markers of inflammation in muscle and epimysium samples was different in any exercised group. Only subjects in the Downhill groups experienced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and increased serum creatine kinase activity (CK). The detected levels of immunohistochemical markers for T cells (CD3), granulocytes (CD11b), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1beta (HIF-1beta) were greater in epimysium from exercised subjects with DOMS ratings >3 (0-10 scale) compared to exercised subjects without DOMS but not higher than controls. Eccentric physical exercise (downhill running) did not result in skeletal muscle inflammation 48 h post exercise, despite DOMS and increased CK. It is suggested that exercise can induce DOMS by activating inflammatory factors present in the epimysium before exercise. Repeated physical training may alter the content of inflammatory factors in the epimysium and thus reduce DOMS. SN - 0022-3751 UR - https://wwww.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14766942/Leukocytes_cytokines_growth_factors_and_hormones_in_human_skeletal_muscle_and_blood_after_uphill_or_downhill_running_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -