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- Effects of dietary Crotalaria pallida seeds on the health and performance of laying hens and evaluation of residues in eggs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Res Vet Sci 2014 Jul 10.
The effect of three dietary concentrations of Crotalaria pallida (C. pallida) seeds (0, 1, 2, and 3% w/w) of their normal diet were investigated in commercial laying hens during a 35 day feeding trial. All concentrations of C. pallida decreased body weight and feed intake (P < 0.05). Egg mass production and average egg weight were decreased by feeding of ≥2% C. pallida seeds (P < 0.05). All concentrations of C. pallida increased relative lung weight and serum activity of ALT, AST and LDH (P < 0.05); 3% C. pallida seeds decreased liver weight (P < 0.05). Analysis of the C. pallida seeds for dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid content detected usaramine and its N-oxide at a total alkaloid concentration of 0.18% (dry weight). Usaramine was also detected in the eggs of all hens fed C. pallida seeds.
- Evaluation of the hepatroprotective and nephroprotective activities of Scrophularia hypericifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- Saudi Pharm J 2014 Jul; 22(3):258-63.
The hepatroprotective and nephroprotective effects of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Scrophularia hypericifolia growing in Saudi Arabia were evaluated at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) doses using Wistar albino rats as experimental animal model. Toxic doses of paracetamol were used to induce liver and kidney toxicities, while the standard drug silymarin was used as reference. The biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and total bilirubin were estimated as reflections of the liver condition. Kidney condition was investigated through measurement of serum urea, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium levels. Liver and kidney samples of rats treated with 500 mg kg(-1) of the extract were subjected to the histopathological study. The ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. hypericifolia showed dose dependent moderate level of protection against paracetamol induced hepatrotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as indicated from the obtained results. The reduction of the sodium and potassium levels by the higher dose of the extract exceeded that obtained by silymarin.
- [The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-3 and omega-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vopr Pitan 2014; 83(1):27-32.
The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p < 0.05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0.92 +/- 0.08 and 0.79 +/- 0.12 vs 1.26 +/- 0.10. The use of high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0.47 +/- 0.04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2.53 +/- 0.23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum.
- Can Aging in Place Be Cost Effective? A Systematic Review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(7):e102705.
To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to 'age in place' and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place.People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement.Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style.Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered.The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn.
- Could Biochemical Liver Profile Help to Assess Metabolic Response to Aerobic Effort in Athletes? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Strength Cond Res 2014 Aug; 28(8):2180-2186.
Chamera, T, Spieszny, M, Klocek, T, Kostrzewa-Nowak, D, Nowak, R, Lachowicz, M, Buryta, R, and Cięszczyk, P. Could biochemical liver profile help to assess metabolic response to aerobic effort in athletes? J Strength Cond Res 28(8): 2180-2186, 2014-Monitoring and optimizing the effectiveness of training course require wide analyses of athletes' blood parameter changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of biochemical liver profile to assess the metabolic response to semi-long-distance outdoor run in football players. Sixteen football players run outdoor for 60 minutes to achieve aerobic metabolism. Plasma activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and plasma levels of total and direct bilirubin were determined in samples obtained before exercise test (pre-exercise) and immediately after the run (post-exercise). Mean AST plasma activity (U·L) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 78.3/228.3 in women and 76.5/56.2 in men. Mean ALT plasma activity (U·L) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 27.5/59.1 in women and 36.2/35.3 in men. Mean GGT plasma activity (U·L) before/after the exercise, respectively, was 39.3/76.6 in women and 44.7/71.2 in men. Plasma levels of total and direct bilirubin were similar before and after the run regardless of the gender. Statistical significance of the differences between results obtained pre- and post-exercise occurred in women (p = 0.0212 for AST; p = 0.0320 for ALT; p = 0.0067 for GGT, respectively). The training monitoring in athletes should be performed using measurements of performance and biological or physiological parameters. It was found that AST, ALT, and GGT activities could be a valuable tool to assess the metabolic response in high-level fitness female athletes. Therefore, monitoring of those well-known diagnostic markers could prevent the trainee from harmful overtraining.
- Clinical chemistry profiles in injection heroin users from Coastal Region, Kenya. [Journal Article]
- BMC Clin Pathol 2014.:32.
Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug users. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the clinical chemistry profiles and identifying the key laboratory markers of HIV infection during ART in injection heroin users (IHUs).Clinical chemistry measurements were performed on serum samples collected from HIV-1 infected ART-experienced (n = 22), naive (n = 16) and HIV-1 negative (n = 23) IHUs, and healthy controls (n = 15) from Mombasa, coastal Kenya.HIV uninfected IHUs had lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P = 0.023) as ART-exposed IHUs exhibited lower albumin (P = 0.014) and higher AST to platelet index (APRI) (P < 0.0001). All IHUs presented with lower aspartate aminotransferase to ALT values (P = 0.001) and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.002). ART-naive IHUs had higher globulin levels (P = 0.013) while ART-experienced and naive IHUs had higher albumin to total protein (P < 0.0001) and albumin to globulin (P < 0.0001) values. In addition, CD4+ T cells correlated with ALT (ρ = -0.522, P = 0.011) and CRP (rho, ρ = 0.529, P = 0.011) in HIV negative and ART-experienced IHUs, respectively. HIV-1 viral load correlated with albumin to globulin index in ART-experienced (ρ = -0.468, P = 0.037) and naive (ρ = -0.554, P = 0.040) IHUs; and with albumin to total protein index (ρ = -0.554, P = 0.040) and globulin (ρ = 0.570, P = 0.033) in ART-naive IHUs.Absolute ALT, albumin, globulin, and CRP measurements in combination with APRI, AST to ALT, albumin to total protein and albumin to globulin indices may be useful laboratory markers for screening IHUs for initiating and monitoring treatment.
- [Lentiviral-mediated RNA interference of LXRα gene in donor rats with fatty liver enhances liver graft function after transplantation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2014 Jul 20; 34(7):1005-10.
To investigate whether RNA interference (RNAi) of LXRα gene in donor rats with fatty liver improves liver graft function after transplantation.Fifty donor SD rats were fed a high-fat diet and 56% alcohol to induce macrovesicular steatosis exceeding 60% in the liver. The donor rats were injected via the portal veins with 7×10(7) TU LXRα-RNAi-LV mixture (n=25) or negative control-LV (NC-LV) vector (n=25) 72 h before orthotopic liver transplantation. At 2, 24, and 72 h after the transplantation, the recipient rats were sacrificed to examine liver transaminases, liver graft histology, immunostaining (TUNEL), and protein and mRNA levels of LXRα.Lentivirus-LXRα RNAi inhibited LXRα gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in the liver graft and reduced the expressions of SREBP-1c and CD36 as compared with the controls, resulting also in reduced fatty acid accumulation in the hepatocytes. The recipient rats receiving RNAi-treated grafts showed more obvious reduction in serum ALT, AST, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and exhibited milder hepatic pathologies than the control rats after the transplantation. TUNEL assay demonstrated a significant reduction in cell apoptosis in LXRα-RNAi-LV-treated liver grafts, and the rats receiving treated liver grafts had a prolonged mean overall survival time.LXRα-RNAi-LV treatment of the donor rats with fatty liver can significantly down-regulate LXRα gene expression in the liver graft and improve the graft function and recipient rat survival after liver transplantation.
- [Analysis of hepatitis B surface antigen levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Guangzhou]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2014 Jul 20; 34(7):974-7.
To assess the value of quantitative analysis of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the diagnosis and therapeutic evaluations in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).According to the staging criteria defined by the American Association of Liver Diseases, 96 patients with CHB admitted in Zhujiang Hospital were classified in immune-tolerant (IT), HBeAg-positive hepatitis (EPH), inactive carrier (IC) and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) phases. Serum HBsAg, HBV-DNA and ALT levels were quantified and their correlations were evaluated in each phase of infection.The mean HBsAg titers (measured in log10U/L) differed significantly between the phases of CHB (4.12 in IT, 4.02 in EPH, 2.85 in EPH, and 3.29 in ENH). The correlation coefficient of HBsAg with HBV-DNA was 0.6828 in IT, 0.5759 in EPH, 0.3280 in IC, and 0.1083 in ENH. Serum HBsAg titers were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients than in HBeAg-negative patients. No correlation was found between HBsAg level and ALT in each phase of CHB.The median baseline serum HBsAg levels vary between different phases of CHB in Guangzhou, suggesting the value of HBsAg in accurate classification of hepatitis B patients and evaluation of the therapeutic effect and outcomes of the patients.
- Effects of arecoline on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity and oxidative stress. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Sci 2014; 39(4):609-14.
Betel-quid use is associated with the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of arecoline on human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro and rat hepatic CYP enzymes, as well as the hepatic oxidative stress and liver injury of rats in vivo. The in vitro results indicated that arecoline hydrobromide (AH) has no significant effect on the activities of CYP2B, 2C9, 3A4, 1A2, 2E1 and 2D6 in human liver microsome (HLM). However, oral administration of AH at 4 and 20 mg/kg/d for seven consecutive days significantly increased the activities of rat hepatic CYP2B, 2E1, 2D, 3A, 2C and 1A2. In addition, AH at 100 mg/kg/d significantly increased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA, decreased the levels of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH, in rat liver. The in vivo induction of AH on rat hepatic CYP isoforms suggested that the high risk of metabolic interaction should be existed when the substrate drugs of the six kinds of CYP isoforms was administered in betel-quid use human. Furthermore, the in vivo results also suggested that AH-induced hepatoxicity should be associated with the induction of AH on rat hepatic CYP2E1 and 2B.