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- Cordyceps militaris alleviates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in ob/ob mice. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Res Pract 2014 Apr; 8(2):172-6.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming an important public health problem as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have become epidemic. In this study we investigated the protective effect of Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) against NAFLD in an obese mouse model.Four-week-old male ob/ob mice were fed an AIN-93G diet or a diet containing 1% C. militaris water extract for 10 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Serum glucose, insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), alanine transaminase (ALT), and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Hepatic levels of lipids, glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxide were determined.Consumption of C. militaris significantly decreased serum glucose, as well as homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), in ob/ob mice. In addition to lowering serum FFA levels, C. militaris also significantly decreased hepatic total lipids and triglyceride contents. Serum ALT activities and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were reduced by C. militaris. Consumption of C. militaris increased hepatic GSH and reduced lipid peroxide levels.These results indicate that C. militaris can exert protective effects against development of NAFLD, partly by reducing inflammatory cytokines and improving hepatic antioxidant status in ob/ob mice.
- Peanut sprouts extract (Arachis hypogaea L.) has anti-obesity effects by controlling the protein expressions of PPARγ and adiponectin of adipose tissue in rats fed high-fat diet. [Journal Article]
- Nutr Res Pract 2014 Apr; 8(2):158-64.
This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets.Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP α), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined.After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPARγ in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP α and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant.In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPARγ which regulates the expression of adiponectin.
- Anti-fibrosis effects of Huisheng oral solution in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rat. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Pharmacol 2014 Mar; 46(2):216-21.
Some gradient of Huisheng oral solution (HOS) has been reported to have anti-fibrosis activity. This study was designed to investigate whether HOS could inhibit liver fibrosis and to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action.Hepatic fibrosis model in rat was induced by subcutaneous injection of CCl4. Rats in the treatment group were administrated with HOS intragastrically. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine the changes in liver pathology. Levels of ALT, AST, LDH, hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in serum and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in liver were detected by biochemical examination and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The expression and distribution of Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA and TIMP-1 were observed and the active TGF-β1 was tested.Our data demonstrated that HOS alleviated CCl4-induced collagen deposition in liver tissue, improved liver condition and liver function in rats. HOS also significantly reduced the expression and distribution of Smad3, TGF-β1, α-SMA and TIMP-1 as well as decreased active TGF-β1.This study revealed that HOS attenuates the development of liver fibrosis through suppressing the TGF-β1 pathway. It provides us a new approach to treatment of liver fibrosis.
- Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Pharmacol 2014 Mar; 46(2):197-200.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced sub-acute toxicity in rats.Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) @ 500 mg/kg daily for the same time period, whereas only deionized water was given to Group I (control). Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress parameters and arsenic concentration were assessed in liver. Histopathology was also conducted.It has been seen that TPE (500 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced serum ALT, AST, ALP activity and increased total protein and reduced necrosis and inflammation in liver of group III compared to group II. A significantly (P < 0.01) higher LPO and lower GSH levels without change in SOD activity in liver was also observed in group II compared to group III, though there was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation between them. The plant extract also protects the animals of group III from significant (P < 0.01) reduction in body weight.Our study shows that supplementation of Tephrosia purpurea extract (500 mg/kg) could ameliorate the hepatotoxic action of arsenic.
- The role of clinical response to metformin in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: a monotherapy study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Med 2014 Apr 17.
A major predicament in certain users of metformin, which is one of the most commonly used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) treatment, is the lack of appropriate response to the drug. We evaluated the role of metformin response and OCT1 (organic cation transporter1) Met420del polymorphism in a monotherapy study (metformin therapy for 12 weeks) on patients newly diagnosed with T2DM. Based on the response to metformin, patients (n = 108) were divided into two groups: responders (n = 49) and non-responders (n = 59). HbA1c levels were determined by affinity technique. The OCT1-Met420del polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was a significant association between the variable response with HbA1c and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (Wilks' λ = 0.905, p = 0.01). Responders had significantly lower HbA1c and FBS levels compared with non-responders (η (2) = 0.087, p = 0.004 for HbA1c and η (2) = 0.055, p = 0.022 for FBS). The interaction treatment-response increased the effect sizes from 32 to 58 % for HbA1c. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values were significantly lower in the responder group than in the non-responders (η (2) = 0.067, p = 0.01 for ALT and η (2) = 0.052, p = 0.025 for AST). This observational study showed that the variant OCT1-Met420del may be more effective on plasma glucose than HbA1c. The variable response could account for a significant proportion of the variance in HbA1c levels observed following treatment with metformin. Metformin shows a significantly greater effect on ALT and AST in responders than in non-responders.
- Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma: 80 cases. [Journal Article]
- Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2014 Mar; 20(2):97-100.
Liver is the most frequently injured organ upon abdominal trauma. We present a group of patients with blunt hepatic trauma who were managed without any invasive diagnostic tools and/or surgical intervention.A total of 80 patients with blunt liver injury who were hospitalized to the general surgery clinic or other clinics due to the concomitant injuries were followed non-operatively. The normally distributed numeric variables were evaluated by Student's t-test or one way analysis of variance, while non-normally distributed variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis. Chi-square test was also employed for the comparison of categorical variables. Statistical significance was assumed for p<0.05.There was no significant relationship between patients' Hgb level and liver injury grade, outcome, and mechanism of injury. Also, there was no statistical relationship between liver injury grade, outcome, and mechanism of injury and ALT levels as well as AST level. There was no mortality in any of the patients.During the last quarter of century, changes in the diagnosis and treatment of liver injury were associated with increased survival. NOM of liver injury in patients with stable hemodynamics and hepatic trauma seems to be the gold standard.
- Modification of the Tube-in-Tube Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Total Phalloplasty: The Mushroom Flap. [Journal Article]
- Ann Plast Surg 2014 May.:S22-6.
Malformation or absence of the penis can lead to physical and psychological problems for male patients. Reconstruction of the phallus should optimally be completed in a single procedure, be aesthetically pleasing, retain erogenous and tactile sensation, enable micturition in the standing position, and allow for penetrative sexual intercourse. The tube-in-tube flap was described nearly 30 years ago and forms both a urethra and an outer penile shaft with a single flap. Here we present our modification of the original tube-in-tube design with the pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and an extension for the neoglans, which we have termed the "mushroom flap" because of its shape and design.The flap is based on the ALT flap; however, the area that will become the neoglans is shaped with a semicircular extension, resembling the head of a mushroom. When the flap is tubularized, the neoglans has the proper anatomic landmarks such as the corona and more closely approximates a circumcised penis. When used in conjunction with the tube-in-tube design, the neophallus, neoglans, and neourethra can all be constructed in a single stage with a single flap.We have performed total phalloplasties in three patients using the pedicled ALT flap, and the mushroom flap design evolved as we sought to improve the aesthetics of the neoglans. In comparing the aesthetic results among our patients as well as those published in the literature, the mushroom flap design seems to provide the most natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance.The pedicled ALT flap can be used to reconstruct an entire penis, as well as a urethra, without the need for microsurgery. By modifying the original tube-in-tube design to include a semicircular extension (a.k.a. the "mushroom flap"), we feel that we have been able to achieve a more natural-appearing neoglans.
- On-treatment low serum HBV RNA level predicts initial virological response in chronic hepatitis B patients receiving nucleoside analogue therapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Antivir Ther 2014 Apr 16.
Serum HBV RNA is detectable during nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy as the consequence of unaffected RNA replicative intermediates or interrupted reverse transcription. We studied the predictive value of serum HBV RNA for initial virologic response during nucleoside analogue therapy.Serum HBV RNA was quantified before and at 12 and 24 weeks of lamivudine or entecavir therapy. Serum HBV DNA was measured every 4 to 12 weeks during treatment to define initial virologic response.Serum HBV RNA was detectable in 21 of 52 (40%) consecutive patients with the mean of 5.2 log copies/mL (M/F 35/17; mean age of 60 years with the range from 31 to 82; 44% HBeAg-positive; 26 with lamivudine and 26 with entecavir) before treatment. Serum HBV RNA level at week 12 in patients with interval from detectable to undetectable serum HBV DNA level < 16 weeks was significantly lower than those with interval ≥ 16 weeks (3.8 ± 3.8 versus 6.6 ± 3.5 log copies/ml, p=0.013). After adjustment for serum HBV DNA level at week 12, serum qHBsAg level at week 12, and pre-treatment ALT level, low serum HBV RNA level at week 12 predicted a shorter interval to become undetectable serum HBV DNA level (adjusted hazard ratio=0.908, 95% CI=0.829-0.993, p=0.035).Low serum HBV RNA level at week 12 of nucleoside analogue therapy independently predicts initial virologic response in treated chronic hepatitis B patients. Serum HBV RNA level may thus be useful to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
- Antagonism of Salvianolic acid B on LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation in rabbits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2014 Apr 17.
To study the effect of Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in rabbits.Continuous infusion of LPS induced DIC model in rabbits. The treatments with Salvianolic acid B were started simultaneously with LPS infusion through the contralateral marginal ear vein. activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count and fibrinogen concentration were measured; the plasma levels of fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were detected; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood urine nitrogen (BUN), the activity of protein C, antithrombinIII (ATIII) and the concentration of TNF-α were determined.The gradual impairment of hemostatic parameters was induced by continuous infusion of LPS. The APTT, PT, BUN, ALT and plasma TNF-α increased obviously, however, the platelet count, fibrinogen, FDP, protein C and ATIII decreased clearly. The intravenous administration of Salvianolic acid B attenuated the increased levels of APTT, PT, BUN, ALT and plasma TNF-α, and the decreased levels of fibrinogen, platelet, FDP, protein C and ATIII induced by LPS infusion.Salvianolic acid B has the effect against LPS induced DIC in rabbits This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.